For the title "Lord God the Pope" see a gloss on the Extravagantes of Pope John XXII, title 14, ch. 4, Declaramus. In an Antwerp edition of the Extravagantes, dated 1584, the words "Dominum Deum nostrum Papam" ("Our Lord God the Pope") occur in column 153. In a Paris edition, dated 1612, they occur in column 140. In several editions published since 1612 the word "Deum" ("God") has been omitted.
Page 50. [Return to Page: 86] Infallibility.--On the doctrine of infallibility as set forth at the Vatican Council of 1870-71, see Philip Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, vol. 2, Dogmatic Decrees of the Vatican Council, pp. 234-271, where both the Latin and the English texts are given. For discussion see, for the Roman Catholic view, The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 7, art. "Infallibility," by Patrick J. Toner, p. 790 ff.; James Cardinal Gibbons, The Faith of Our Fathers (Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 110th ed., 1917), chs. 7, 11. For Roman Catholic opposition to the doctrine of papal infallibility, see Johann Joseph Ignaz von Doellinger (pseudonym "Janus") The Pope and the Council (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1869); and W.J. Sparrow Simpson, Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility (London: John Murray, 1909). For the non-Roman view, see George Salmon, Infallibility of the Church (London: John Murray, rev. ed., 1914).
"Images and pictures were first introduced into churches, not to be worshiped, but either in the place of books to give instruction to those who could not read, or to excite devotion in the minds of others. How far they ever answered such a purpose is doubtful; but, even granting that this was the case for a time, it soon ceased to be so, and it was found that pictures and images brought into churches darkened rather than enlightened the minds of the ignorant--degraded rather than exalted the devotion of the worshiper. So that, however they might have been intended to direct men's minds to God, they ended in turning them from Him to the worship of created things."--J. Mendham, The Seventh General Council, the Second of Nicaea, Introduction, pages iii-vi.
For a record of the proceedings and decisions of the Second Council of Nicaea, A.D. 787, called to establish the worship of images, see Baronius, Ecclesiastical Annals, vol. 9, pp. 391-407 (Antwerp, 1612); J. Mendham, The Seventh General Council, the Second of Nicaea; Ed. Stillingfleet, Defense of the Discourse Concerning the Idolatry Practiced in the Church of Rome (London, 1686); A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2d series, vol. 14, pp. 521-587 (New York, 1900); Charles J. Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church, From the Original Documents, b. 18, ch. 1, secs. 332, 333; ch. 2, secs. 345-352 (T. and T. Clark ed., 1896), vol. 5, pp. 260-304, 342-372.
Page 53. [Return to Pages: 53, 574] The Sunday Law of Constantine.--The law issued by the emperor Constantine on the seventh of March, A.D. 321, regarding a day of rest from labor, reads thus:
"All judges and city people and the craftsmen shall rest upon the venerable Day of the Sun. Country people, however, may freely attend to the cultivation of the fields, because it frequently happens that no other days are better adapted for planting the grain in the furrows or the vines in trenches. So that the advantage given by heavenly providence may not for the occasion of a short time perish."--Joseph Cullen Ayer, A Source Book for Ancient Church History (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913), div. 2, per. 1, ch. 1, sec. 59, g, pp. 284, 285.
The Latin original is in the Codex Justiniani (Codex of Justinian), lib. 3,
Page 54. [Return to Pages: 54, 266] Prophetic dates.--An important principle in prophetic interpretation in connection with time prophecies is the year-day principle, under which a day of prophetic time is counted as a calendar year of historic time. Before the Israelites entered the land of Canaan they sent twelve spies ahead to investigate. The spies were gone forty days, and upon their return the Hebrews, frightened at their report, refused to go up and occupy the Promised Land. The result was a sentence the Lord passed upon them: "After the number of the days in which ye searched the land, even forty days, each day for a year, shall ye bear your iniquities, even forty years." Numbers 14:34. A similar method of computing future time is indicated through the prophet Ezekiel. Forty years of punishment for iniquities awaited the kingdom of Judah. The Lord said through the prophet: "Lie again on thy right side, and thou shalt bear the iniquity of the house of Judah forty days: I have appointed thee each day for a year." Ezekiel 4:6. This year-day principle has an important application in interpreting the time of the prophecy of the "two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings" (Daniel 8:14, R.V.) and the 1260-day period, variously indicated as "a time and times and the dividing of time" (Daniel 7:25), the "forty and two months" (Revelation 11:2; 13:5), and the "thousand two hundred and threescore days" (Revelation 11:3; 12:6).
[Return to Page: 56]
Forged writings.--Among the documents that at the present time are generally
admitted to be forgeries, the Donation of Constantine and the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals are
of primary importance. "The 'Donation of Constantine' is the name traditionally applied,
since the later Middle Ages, to a document purporting to have been addressed by Constantine
the Great to Pope Sylvester I, which is found first in a Parisian manuscript (Codex lat.
2777) of probably the beginning of the ninth century. Since the eleventh century it has
been used as a powerful argument in favor of the papal claims, and consequently since the
twelfth it has been the subject of a vigorous controversy. At the same time, by rendering it
possible to regard the papacy as a middle term between the original and the medieval Roman
Empire, and thus to form a theoretical basis of continuity for the reception of the Roman law
in the Middle Ages, it has had no small influence upon secular history."--The New
Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, vol. 3, art. "Donation of
constantine," pp. 484, 485.
The historical theory developed in the "Donation" is fully discussed in Henry E. Cardinal Manning's The Temporal Power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ, London, 1862. The arguments of the "Donation" were of a scholastic type, and the possibility of a forgery was not mentioned until the rise of historical criticism in the fifteenth century. Nicholas of Cusa was among the first to conclude that Constantine never made any such donation. Lorenza Valla in Italy gave a brilliant demonstration of its spuriousness in 1450. See Christopher B. Coleman's Treatise of Lorenzo Valla on the Donation of Constantine (New York, 1927). For a century longer, however, the belief in the authenticity of the "Donation" and of the False Decretals was kept alive. For example, Martin Luther at first accepted the decretals, but he soon said to Eck: "I impugn these decretals;" and to Spalatin: "He [the pope] does in his decretals corrupt and crucify Christ, that is, the truth."
It is deemed established that the "donation" is (1) a forgery, (2) the work of one man or period, (3) the forger has made use of older documents, (4) the forgery originated around 752 and 778. As for the Catholics, they abandoned the defense of the authenticity of the document with Baronius, Ecclesiastical Annals, in 1592. Consult for the best text, K. Zeumer, in the Festgabe fur Rudolf von Gneist (Berlin, 1888). Translat- ed in Coleman's Treatise, referred to above, and in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages (New York, 1892), p. 319; Briefwechsel (Weimar ed.), pp. 141, 161. See also The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1950), vol. 3, p. 484; F. Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 2, p. 329; and Johann Joseph Ignaz von Doellinger, Fables Respecting the Popes of the Middle Ages (London, 1871).
The "false writings" referred to in the text include also the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, together with other forgeries. The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals are certain fictitious letters ascribed to early popes from Clement (A.D. 100) to Gregory the Great (A.D. 600), incorporated in a ninth century collection purporting to have been made by "Isidore Mercator." The name "Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals" has been in use since the advent of criticism in the fifteenth century.
Pseudo-Isidore took as the basis of his forgeries a collection of valid canons called the Hispana Gallica Augustodunensis, thus lessening the danger of detection, since collections of canons were commonly made by adding new matter to old. Thus his forgeries were less apparent when incorporated with genuine material. The falsity of the Pseudo-Isidorian fabrications is now incontestably admitted, being proved by internal evidence, investigation of the sources, the methods used, and the fact that this material was unknown before 852. Historians agree that 850 or 851 is the most probable date for the completion of the collection, since the document is first cited in the Admonitio of the capitulary of Quiercy, in 857.
The author of these forgeries is not known. It is probable that they
Among those who challenged their authenticity were Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464), Charles Dumoulin (1500-1566), and George Cassender (1513- 1564). The irrefutable proof of their falsity was conveyed by David Blondel, 1628.
An early edition is given in Migne Patrolgia Latina, CXXX. For the oldest and best manuscript, see P. Hinschius, Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianiae at capitula Angilramni (Leipzig, 1863). Consult The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1950), vol. 9, pp. 343-345. See also H. H. Milman, Latin Christianity (9 vols.), vol. 3; Johann Joseph Ignaz von Doellinger, The Pope and the Council (1869); and Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of the Expansion of Christianity (1939), vol. 3; The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 5, art. "False Decretals," and Fournier, "Etudes sure les Fausses Decretals," in Revue d'Historique Ecclesiastique (Louvain) vol. 7 (1906), and vol. 8 (1907).
Page 57. [Return to Page: 57] The Dictate of Hildebrand (Gregory VII).--For the original Latin version see Baronius, Annales Ecclesiastici, ann. 1076, vol. 17, pp. 405, 406 of the Paris printing of 1869; and the Monumenta Germaniae Historica Selecta, vol. 3, p. 17. For an English translation see Frederic A. Ogg, Source Book of Medieval History (New York: American Book Co., 1907), ch. 6, sec. 45, pp. 262-264; and Oliver J. Thatcher and Edgar H. Mcneal, source Book for Medieval History (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905), sec. 3, item 65, pp. 136-139.
For a discussion of the background of the Dictate, see James Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire, rev. ed., ch. 10; and James W. Thompson and Edgar N. Johnson, An Introduction to Medieval Europe, 300-1500, pages 377-380.
Page 59. [Return to Page: 59] Purgatory.--Dr. Joseph Faa Di Bruno thus defines purgatory: "Purgatory is a state of suffering after this life, in which those souls are for a time detained, who depart this life after their deadly sins have been remitted as to the stain and guilt, and as to the everlasting pain that was due to them; but who have on account of those sins still some debt of temporal punishment to pay; as also those souls which leave this world guilty only of venial sins."--Catholic Belief (1884 ed.; imprimatur Archbishop of New York), page 196.
See also K. R. Hagenbach, Compendium of the History of Doctrines (T. and T. Clark ed.) vol. 1, pp. 234-237, 405, 408; vol. 2, pp. 135-150, 308, 309; Charles Elliott, Delineation of Roman Catholicism, b. 2, ch. 12; The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 12, art. "Purgatory."
Page 59. [Return to Pages: 59, 84, 103, 128] Indulgences.--For a detailed history of the doctrine of indulgences see Mandell Creighton, A History of the Papacy from The Great
On the practical outworkings of the doctrine of indulgences during the period of the Reformation see a paper by Dr. H. C. Lea, entitled, "Indulgences in Spain," published in Papers of the American Society of Church History, vol. 1, pp. 129-171. Of the value of this historical sidelight Dr. Lea says in his opening paragraph: "Unvexed by the controversy which raged between Luther and Dr. Eck and Silvester Prierias, Spain continued tranquilly to follow in the old and beaten path, and furnishes us with the incontestable official documents which enable us to examine the matter in the pure light of history."
Page 59. [Return to Page: 59] The Mass.--For the doctrine of the mass as set forth at the Council of Trent see The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent in Philip Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, vol. 2, pp. 126-139, where both Latin and English texts are given. See also H. G. Schroeder, Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent (St. Louis, Missouri: B. Herder, 1941).
For a discussion of the mass see The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol 5, art. "Eucharist," by Joseph Pohle, page 572 ff.; Nikolaus Gihr, Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, Dogmatically, Liturgically, Ascetically Explained, 12th ed. (St. Louis, Missouri: B. Herder, 1937); Josef Andreas Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite, Its Origins and Development, translated from the German by Francis A. Brunner (New York: Benziger Bros., 1951). For the non-Catholic view, see John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, b. 4, chs. 17, 18; and Edward Bouverie Pusey, The Doctrine of the Real Presence (Oxford, England: John H. Parker, 1855).
Page 65. [Return to Page: 65] The Sabbath Among the Waldenses.--There are writers who have maintained that the Waldenses made a general practice of observing the seventh-day Sabbath. This concept arose from sources which in the original Latin describe the Waldenses as keeping the Dies Dominicalis, or Lord's day (Sunday), but in which through a practice which dates from the Reformation, the word for "Sunday" has been translated "Sabbath."
But there is historical evidence of some observance of the seventh-day Sabbath among the Waldenses. A report of an inquisition before whom were brought some Waldenses of Moravia in the middle of the fifteenth century declares that among the Waldenses "not a few indeed celebrate the
Page 65. [Return to Page: 65] Waldensian Versions of the Bible.--On recent discoveries of Waldensian manuscripts see M. Esposito, "Sur quelques manuscrits de l'ancienne litterature des Vaudois du Piemont," in Revue d'Historique Ecclesiastique (Louvain, 1951), p. 130 ff.; F. Jostes, "Die Waldenserbibeln," in Historisches Jahrbuch, 1894; D. Lortsch, Histoire de la Bible en France (Paris, 1910), ch. 10.
A classic written by one of the Waldensian "barbs" is Jean Leger, Histoire Generale des Eglises Evangeliques des Vallees de Piemont (Leyden, 1669), which was written at the time of the great persecutions and contains firsthand information with drawings.
For the literature of Waldensian texts see A. Destefano, Civilta Medioevale (1944); and Riformatori ed eretici nel medioeve (Palermo, 1938); J. D. Bounous, The Waldensian Patois of Pramol (Nashville, 1936); and A. Dondaine, Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum (1946).
For the history of the Waldenses some of the more recent, reliable works are: E. Comba, History of the Waldenses in Italy (see later Italian edition published in Torre Pellice, 1934); E. Gebhart, Mystics and Heretics (Boston, 1927); G. Gonnet, Il Valdismo Medioevale, Prolegomeni (Torre Pellice, 1935); and Jalla, Histoire des Vaudois et leurs colonies (Torre Pellice, 1935).
Page 77. [Return to Page: 77] Edict Against the Waldenses.--A considerable portion of the text of the papal bull issued by Innocent VIII in 1487 against the Waldenses (the original of which is in the library of the University of Cambridge) is given, in an English translation, in John Dowling's History of Romanism (1871 ed.), b. 6, ch. 5, sec. 62.
Page 85. [Return to Page: 85] Wycliffe.--The historian discovers that the name of Wycliffe has many different forms of spelling. For a full discussion of these see J. Dahmus, The Prosecution of John Wyclyf (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1952), p. 7.
Page 86. [Return to Page: 86] Infallibility.
For the original text of the papal bulls issued against Wycliffe with English translation see J. Dahmus, The Prosecution of John Wyclyf (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1952), pp. 35-49; also John Foxe, Acts and Monuments of the Church (London: Pratt Townsend, 1870), vol. 3, pp. 4-13.
For a summary of these bulls sent to the archbishop of Canterbury, to King Edward, and to the chancellor of the University of Oxford, see Merle d'Aubigne, The History of the Reformation in the Sixteenth Century (London: Blackie and Son, 1885), vol. 4, div. 7, p. 93; August Neander, General
Page 104. [Return to Page: 104] Council of Constance.--A primary source on the Council of Constance is Richendal Ulrich, Das Concilium so zu Constanz gehalten ist worden (Augsburg, 1483, Incun.). An interesting, recent study of this text, based on the "Aulendorf Codex," is in the Spencer Collection of the New York Public Library, published by Carl Kup, Ulrich von Richental's Chronicle of the Council of Constance (New York, 1936). See also H. Finke (ed.), Acta Concilii Constanciensis (1896), vol. 1; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte (9 vols.), vols. 6, 7; L. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums (1934); Milman, Latin Christianity, vol. 7, pp. 426-524; Pastor, The History of the Popes (34 vols.), vol. 1, p. 197 ff.
More recent publications on the council are K. Zaehringer, Das Kardinal Kollegium auf dem Konstanzer Konzil (Muenster, 1935); Th. F. Grogau, The Conciliar Theory as It Manifested Itself at the Council of Constance (Washington, 1949); Fred A. Kremple, Cultural Aspects of the Council of Constance and Basel (Ann Arbor, 1955); John Patrick McGowan, d'Ailly and the Council of Constance (Washington: Catholic University, 1936).
For John Huss see John Hus, Letters, 1904; E. J. Kitts, Pope John XXIII and Master John Hus (London, 1910); D. S. Schaff, John Hus (1915); Schwarze, John Hus (1915); and Matthew Spinka, John Hus and the Czech Reform (1941).
Page 234. [Return to Page: 234] Jesuitism.--For a statement concerning the origin, the principles, and the purposes of the "Society of Jesus," as outlined by members of this order, see a work entitled Concerning Jesuits, edited by the Rev. John Gerard, S.J., and published in London, 1902, by the Catholic Truth Society. In this work it is said, "The mainspring of the whole organization of the Society is a spirit of entire obedience: 'Let each one,' writes St. Ignatius, 'persuade himself that those who live under obedience ought to allow themselves to be moved and directed by divine Providence through their superiors, just as though they were a dead body, which allows itself to be carried anywhere and to be treated in any manner whatever, or as an old man's staff, which serves him who holds it in his hand in whatsoever way he will.'
"This absolute submission is ennobled by its motive, and should be, continues the . . . founder, 'prompt, joyous and persevering; . . . the obedient religious accomplishes joyfully that which his superiors have confided to him for the general good, assured that thereby he corresponds truly with the divine will.'"--The Comtesse R. de Courson, in Concerning Jesuits, page 6.
See also H. Boehmer, The Jesuits (translation from the German, Philadelphia, Castle Press, 1928 ); E. Goethein, Ignatius Loyola and the Gegen-reformation (Halle, 1895); T. Campbell, The Jesuits, 1534-1921 (New York, 1922); E. L. Taunton, The History of the Jesuits in England, 1580-1773 (London, 1901).
Page 235. [Return to Page: 235] The Inquisition.--For the Roman Catholic view see The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 8, art. "Inquisition" by Joseph Bloetzer, p. 26 ff.: and E. Vacandard, The Inquisition: A Critical and Historical Study of the Coercive Power of the Church (New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1908).
For an Anglo-Catholic view see Hoffman Nickerson, The Inquisition: A Political and Military Study of Its Establishment. For the non-Catholic view see Philip Van Limborch, History of the Inquisition; Henry Charles Lea, A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, 3 vols.; A History of the Inquisition of Spain, 4 vols., and The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies; and H. S. Turberville, Medieval Heresy and the Inquisition (London: C. Lockwood and Son, 1920--a mediating view).
Page 265. [Return to Page: 265] Causes of the French Revolution.--On the far-reaching consequences of the rejection of the Bible and of Bible religion, by the people of France, see H. von Sybel, History of the French Revolution, b. 5, ch. 1, pars. 3-7; Henry Thomas Buckle, History of Civilization in England, chs. 8 , 12, 14 (New York, 1895, vol. 1, pp. 364-366, 369-371, 437, 540, 541, 550); Blackwood's Magazine, vol. 34, No. 215 (November, 1833), p. 739; J. G. Lorimer, An Historical Sketch of the Protestant Church in France, ch. 8, pars. 6, 7.
Page 267. [Return to Page: 267] Efforts to Suppress and Destroy the Bible.--The Council of Toulouse, which met about the time of the crusade against the Albigenses, ruled: "We prohibit laymen possessing copies of the Old and New Testament. . . . We forbid them most severely to have the above books in the popular vernacular." "The lords of the districts shall carefully seek out the heretics in dwellings, hovels, and forests, and even their underground retreats shall be entirely wiped out."--Concil. Tolosanum, Pope Gregory IX, Anno. chr. 1229. Canons 14 and 2. This Council sat at the time of the crusade against the Albigenses.
"This pest [the bible] had taken such an extension that some people had
The Council of Tarragona, 1234, ruled that: "No one may possess the books of the Old and New Testaments in the Romance language, and if anyone possesses them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days after promulgation of this decree, so that they may be burned lest, be he a cleric or a layman, he be suspected until he is cleared of al